Jim Aikin's Oblong Blob

Random Rambling & Questionable Commentary

The School of Velocity

Posted by midiguru on April 20, 2014

I have a couple of advanced cello students (high-school age) whom I’d like to prepare for symphony work. They can already play 95% of what a classical composer calls for — but then there’s that other five percent. In a typical cello part, you get a lot of whole-notes, a lot of easy quarter-notes, and then the composer throws you a terrifying run in 16th-notes. And of course the conductor is going to take the piece at a hair-raising tempo. No mercy.

I haven’t yet found any exercise books that could help students prepare for these passages. (And the Internet Cello Society forum, where I’ve posted questions in the past, appears to be dead.)

Yes, there are books of etudes with two-page etudes marked allegro that are entirely in 16th-notes. Tricky ones, too. But I’m not quite merciless enough to ask a student to master an entire two-page etude and play it flawlessly at a breakneck tempo. Anyway, that’s not how orchestral cello parts work. Typically, your terrifying run is going to be from two to six measures long, and then you can go back to breezing through the quarter-notes. Also, composers of etudes are fond of tossing finger-twisters at players, which is fine, but most composers of symphonic music don’t toss in finger-twisters merely for the sake of challenging the players. They’re more likely to ask you to run up and down a scale pattern in the key of A-flat. Or D-flat. Or F-sharp.

For those of you who aren’t cellists, perhaps I should explain that in the key of A-flat, you can’t use the open A and D strings. In the key of F-sharp, you can’t use any open strings at all. The cellist’s hand spans only three scale notes, and the strings are tuned a fifth apart. As a result, any scale that doesn’t use open strings forces you to shift up or down the fingerboard to a new hand position after three notes.

If the tricky passage is, let’s say, four measures of 16th-notes, that’s 64 notes. Divide by 3 and you’ll find that you’ll need to do as many as 20 rapid and precise shifts, often while crossing from one string to another, at odd rhythmic spots, and usually to or from notes like D-flat and A-sharp that your intermediate method book studiously avoided. Even fairly advanced method books don’t typically use double-sharps or double-flats — but composers don’t hesitate to do so.

So yeah, here’s another cello method book I ought to write.

Posted in cello | Leave a Comment »

Virtual Snapshots

Posted by midiguru on April 16, 2014

Time for a tiny bit of boasting. In the course of working on my upcoming much-too-large text adventure game (“The Only Possible Prom Dress,” look for it before the end of the year, I hope), I decided the player character was going to need a digital camera. Implemented as a cell phone, obviously.

Using Eric Eve’s adv3Lite library for TADS 3, I managed to create a cell phone with which you can snap a photo of any object in the game, and then read a list of the photos you’ve taken. (Because reading is all you can do in a text game — there are no images.) This is kind of cool, and it’s less than obvious how to do it. Dynamically created objects and all that.

The game, if it’s ever finished, is going to be a sequel to “Not Just an Ordinary Ballerina,” my first game, which was released back in 1999. Same location, but greatly elaborated. Similar plot premise. Lots of new characters. A few of the puzzles are related to those in the first game, but most are completely new.

Posted in Interactive Fiction | Leave a Comment »

Life Is a Brewery

Posted by midiguru on April 15, 2014

I’m re-reading a couple of science books I read a few years ago — The Violinist’s Thumb by Sam Kean and Microcosm by Carl Zimmer. Both are about cell biology, and while they’re addressed to the intelligent layman, they’re not gee-whiz pop science books. They really do present a fairly clear picture of what happens inside cells, and how we’ve learned about it all. Kean is far too fond of anthropomorphizing; his descriptions of DNA and other molecules give them very human intentions, and that’s bogus. In reality, the molecules are just bumping around at random, but the process happens so quickly that the results (one molecule fitting into another so as to catalyze a reaction) operate as if they were intentional.

Cells don’t reproduce sexually. They sometimes swap genetic material with one another, but that’s not quite the same thing. Cells reproduce by dividing in two. And no new cells are ever assembled from raw molecular ingredients — that hasn’t happened for billions of years, and may in fact have happened only once. All of the cells in all of the animals and plants that are alive today have arisen through the splitting of previously existing cells. And from the point of view of a cell (if we can speak of such a thing), in splitting it has budded off a daughter cell. A daughter cell isn’t a new-born: It’s still the same cell as before.

This fact has a dizzying consequence: That very first cell that somehow assembled itself 3.8 billion years ago is still alive. It’s you. It’s me. It’s all of life on Earth. With the possible exception of viruses, but I’ve read a theory that viruses evolved from the breakdown of more complete cells. They aren’t a separate creation, they’re just efficient parasites. Be that as it may, it’s humbling to realize that every single cell in your body is 3.8 billion years old. For the last 550 million years or so it was continuously an egg cell; each time an embryo differentiated, the cell that became you was one that remained an egg cell. Before that, you were just swimming around, being a cell.

That’s mind-blowing enough, but once we peer inside cells to discover what makes them tick. what we find is a vast array of chemical reactions, a constantly bubbling stew of molecules bumping against one another and catalyzing reactions. All behavior — all human behavior and all of the other behavior of every living thing on the planet — is ultimately a chemical process that occurs when molecules interact. We can’t even say that behavior is the result of chemical reactions. Behavior IS chemical reactions. Unimaginably complex chemical reactions, to be sure, but there’s nothing else going on. It’s all proteins and methyl groups and whatnot bumping into one another. That’s how you get Shakespeare; it’s also how you get a common garden slug. In fact, many of the same chemical processes that happened in Shakespeare also happen in a slug.

Of course, molecules pass in and out of cells all the time. A cell that couldn’t pass molecules in and out through its membrane would soon be dead. No cell is an island. Once you realize this, if you twist the zoom control all the way out and look at life on Earth as a whole, what you discover is that life on Earth is all one ongoing chemical reaction. It has been going on for 3.8 billion years, constantly stirred by energy from the sun. If we say, “That’s a redwood tree,” or, “That’s a sonnet by Shakespeare,” what we’re doing is giving a name to some small part of this single enormous chemical reaction.

This is humbling, but it’s also freeing. You and I are nothing but burbling masses of chemicals. The molecules are going to do whatever they’re going to do. Nobody is in control, so there’s no blame. Just relax and burble along.

Posted in evolution, random musings | Leave a Comment »

Tiny Everything

Posted by midiguru on April 13, 2014

A couple of months ago I learned one or two pieces in Book 4 of Bela Bartok’s Mikrokosmos. And recently one of the people on the Xenharmonic Alliance II group on Facebook posted a link to a really nice piece for solo piano (digital, of course) in 17-note equal temperament.

Inspired by that piece, I figured I’d try my hand at a Mikrokosmos-style piece — short, melodic, and harmonically modern, in 17et. It only took a few hours to whip something up:


I enjoyed the process so much that a few days later I tried again:


In case you’re curious: No, these weren’t played in real time. There’s a lot of hand-editing of note lengths and velocities, quantizing, trying different harmonies by dragging the notes up and down, and manually adjusting the tempo here and there.

If I do more of these, I’m going to have to call the series “Tiny Everything,” so the first piece needs its own name. How about “Antic”? The second piece, with those heavy minor chords in the lower register, seems to be called “Gloom.”

I’m still foodling with the question of how best to notate a 17-note scale on a conventional five-line staff. Or even whether to bother. If you look at the Wikipedia article on 17et, you’ll find Easley Blackwood’s method. Easley obviously put a lot of thought into questions of this sort, but I find it odd that his chromatic scale zigzags. The first three notes, for instance, are C, D-flat, and then C-sharp. Also, with his method the interval of a neutral third (which divides the perfect fifth evenly) is spelled either as an augmented second or as a diminished fourth, never as a third. Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in microtonal, music | Leave a Comment »

More Fun with Software

Posted by midiguru on April 12, 2014

I happen to be involved in two software-heavy pursuits — electronic music and writing interactive fiction. The differences between the two fields may be of interest to nobody but me, but this is my blog, so here goes.

The software in both fields is sophisticated and feature-rich. But there’s at least a hundred times more activity in electronic music than in IF authoring. In IF, we have probably seven or eight developers, total, who are actively maintaining authoring systems. If you want to do creative work as an IF author, you’ll be using the tools uploaded by one of these kind and generous souls.

There are two main reasons for this. First, the audience for electronic music is at least ten thousand times larger than the audience for interactive fiction. Second, writing IF is much harder than laying out music in a digital audio workstation, so the number of people who even consider writing a text game is very small. The number who ever finish and release their games is even smaller.

The audience for IF is small for two reasons: First, if you want to play a computer game, you’ll probably get more excitement out of a game with video and music. Beyond that, though, playing a text game requires that you think. Few people think while listening to music … or at least, they don’t think about the music.

I’m grateful every day to the developers for producing such wonderful tools. On the IF side, Mike Roberts and Eric Eve are my heroes. On the digital audio side, there are too many heroes for me to list them all, but sound designers like Eric Persing and Howard Scarr would be high on the list, as would Ernst Nathorst-Böös, whose steady hand on the helm has turned Reason into such an amazing music program. Keep up the great work, guys!

Posted in Interactive Fiction, music, random musings, technology | Leave a Comment »

Reading the Bible as Literature

Posted by midiguru on April 11, 2014

I just don’t seem to be able to let sleeping dogs lie. Having aroused some contention over the question of whether the Bible qualifies as literature, I bethought myself to examine one of its better known fables in that light. Let’s not dwell on the barbaric laws or the preposterous historical chronicle — let’s look at a story.

How about the story of Adam and Eve? For those who are following along at home, this would be Genesis chapters 2 and 3. The story is too well known to be worth reiterating here, so let’s jump straight into the literary analysis.

The first moral we might draw from the story is this: Disobeying orders is a really bad idea. But in fact this is a corollary of an underlying, implicit idea, which is that you have a superior, a personage who is completely in charge of your life. This personage will give you orders, and the orders must be obeyed.

A second corollary is that your superior may be malicious or simply incompetent, and may in consequence set you up to fail. For no apparent reason, he may put a major stumbling block in your path. No point in complaining about it, though: He’s your superior.

A third corollary is that, as far as you need be concerned, your superior is Never Wrong. The possibility that Adam might have confronted God about the nasty trap that God set, might have asked for an explanation or a second chance — the story doesn’t go there.

The story’s second moral is that the knowledge of good and evil is a Bad Thing. You’re better off by far not knowing the difference between good and evil. The knowledge will cause no end of trouble. As a corollary, even seeking knowledge is portrayed as a mistake. Your superior wants you to remain ignorant. Given that so much of the rest of the Bible sets out detailed rules whose sole purpose is to explain what’s good and what’s evil, this is an odd place to start the book. But that’s what we’ve got. Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in religion | 4 Comments »

Is the Bible Literature?

Posted by midiguru on April 10, 2014

A friend of mine recently suggested that intelligent people view the Bible not as “the word of God” but as literature. Let’s leave aside the fact that Jesuit priests are reputed to be highly intelligent. I don’t know any Jesuits, so I can’t ask them how they view the Bible, but I suspect most of them probably view it as something more than a work of literature — as do faithful Christians in other denominations. Let’s also leave aside the post-modern idea that “literature” is a subjective construct of some sort; we’ll assume that we know what the word refers to — printed matter like Don Quixote and The Sun Also Rises.

What I think my friend was suggesting was that one can appreciate the content of the Bible as a collection of fables or folk-tales, without being drawn into or distracted by a discussion of its other facets.

The first question that one might ask is, is that how the authors intended their work to be understood? Probably not. Even the most charming or morally uplifting stories in the Bible were probably intended to be read not as works of the human imagination but as fact. But the question of authors’ intentions, while useful as an aid to literary analysis, can be treacherous; it can lead us back in the direction of post-modern literary analysis. So let’s leave it aside too.

If we examine the text itself, we find not only stories but also bits of speculative genealogy, accounts of battles, and numerous sets of rules. Many of the rules are quite explicit — horrifyingly so. It’s difficult to think of a work of literature (or, if you prefer, another work of literature) that devotes so much wordage to telling people what they should and shouldn’t do, much less prescribing severe punishments if they don’t do what they’re supposed to do. The most charitable interpretation would be to say that the Bible is part literature, part history (inaccurate history, at that), and partly a really inadequate self-help book.

If we consider the Bible a piece of literature, we might compare it to The Canterbury Tales, or to the Iliad and Odyssey. All are ancient. All contain bits that may be inspirational or morally uplifting. But there are important differences. The Canterbury Tales was definitely written by one person (though he borrowed freely from older tales) and was understood to be a work of fiction. The Iliad and the Odyssey may have had multiple authors, and may have been conceived as history rather than as fiction, but each of them exhibits a unity of plot that is nowhere in evidence in the Bible as a whole. Even the Decameron has a frame-story and an overall structure that give some sense of unity to the collection, in spite of its diversity. Read the rest of this entry »

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Soft Touch

Posted by midiguru on April 7, 2014

Bought a new laptop yesterday, a high-end Toshiba. No particular reason for choosing Toshiba — it has the features I want (wide screen, big hard drive, four USB ports), and the local Fry’s had it in stock.

Unfortunately, the touchpad is a piece of crap. It’s the kind of design that only a techie could love. Innovative! Goes over great in meetings with sales and marketing people! But for actual users — not so nice.

The left and right buttons, you see, are integral to the touchpad. They’re not separate, mechanical buttons, they’re just areas at the bottom of the pad. So here’s the result: You scoot the pointer over to the little icon that you want to right-click on, and then you lift your finger, move it down to the right-click area, and tap. But … oops! As your finger landed on the right-click area, it wasn’t traveling vertically, it was traveling at an angle. Your fingertip moved laterally across the surface as you began the right-click. And that caused the pointer to move somewhere else.

Congratulations — you’ve just right-clicked on the wrong thing. Why? Because the Toshiba Qosmio doesn’t have real click-buttons.

The two-finger scrolling is upside down, and it’s jerky. Annoying, but not a fatal flaw. Also, you dare not rest your finger lightly on what you think is the left button while moving the pointer with a finger of your other hand. In that situation, the Toshiba will think you’re using a two-finger technique. It may start scrolling the window. It may think you’re trying to do a pinch-zoom. Or it may just refuse to recognize that second fingertip at all, because it thinks you’re stationary in the left-button area.

Why? Because the Toshiba Qosmio doesn’t have real click-buttons.

I was looking for an excuse to take it back to the store. Thought I’d found one. But dang it, no. By default, a Toshiba laptop uses the Function keys for OS stuff — changing the screen brightness and so on. If you have any programs that use the Function keys, this is a big problem, because you have to hold down Fn while tapping the Function key to get at the normal behavior.

The User Guide cleverly does not tell you how to defeat this “feature.” But after a fruitless online search, I dug around in the utilities area and found the switch for reversing it. Too bad. If there had been no way to defeat it, I would have had an ironclad reason to take the computer back to the store and trade it for one with real click-buttons.

 

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Three’s a Crowd

Posted by midiguru on March 29, 2014

Skimming through A. V. Murali’s book Chess Variants & Games, I’m finding lots of intriguing board geometries, some of them deft and some outrageous. Tiling the plane with alternating squares and octagons? Murali’s got you covered. But he seems not very interested in exploring actual game-play.

He proposes a number of three-player variants — on boards of hexagons or triangles, for example. But here’s the thing: Three-player chess flat-out doesn’t work. It’s not a playable game.

A game of two-player chess advances from the opening through the middle game and into the endgame primarily through the process of piece exchange. The board is gradually cleared as bishop is traded for bishop, pawn for pawn, or rook for rook. If you can, you try to get the advantage in an exchange — capturing a knight but losing only a pawn, for example. If you can win a couple of exchanges and otherwise trade pieces of equal value, when the endgame is reached you’re pretty sure to win, because you’ll have significantly more material than your opponent.

In three-player chess, this dynamic process fails. At any point where players A and B exchange pieces, player C comes out ahead. Thus there’s a profound disincentive to exchanging pieces. Nobody is ever going to want to capture anything (other than a piece that’s unprotected, and how likely is that?). The game can’t unfold tactically or strategically, because capturing pieces is a bad idea.

Three-player games such as Chinese checkers, in which material is not exchanged, work well. As far as I can see, a three-player chess variant would work only if shogi-style drop capture was included. Player A, let’s say, captures player B’s rook, and the best player B can get in exchange is player A’s bishop. Player C then gets one move in which he has an advantage, but on their next moves players A and B drop the captured pieces back into play. Player A is now shy of a bishop but has an extra rook, player B having an extra bishop but being short of a rook.

In this situation, player A gains from the exchange relative to player C. Whether a drop should be allowed followed by a move in the same turn, or whether a drop should require an entire turn, is a question that would have to be answered by play-testing.

But what if players A and B each capture one of player C’s pieces in the same turn? Player C has been ganged up on. He can only make one exchange when it’s his turn. What’s worse, if player C has, let’s say, a rook that’s protected only by his bishop, player A could capture the bishop, leaving the rook unprotected, and player B could then capture the rook, in the same turn. The prospect of being ganged up on by your two opponents is clearly a reason not to want to play a three-player variant.

But possibly there’s a way around it. A rule could be added stating that if you have had two pieces captured since your last turn, you get two moves in a single turn, in order to compensate. These two moves might be with a single piece, allowing you to capture one opponent’s king. That would be a powerful disincentive to player B to make the second capture — unless player B thinks (hopes) player C will use his double move to kill player A’s king.

Over-the-board talk and bargaining are also a problem in a three-player variant. I’ll leave you to worry about how best to handle that.

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Cubed

Posted by midiguru on March 29, 2014

A book called Chess Variants & Games, by A. V. Murali, looked interesting, so I bought it. I haven’t read much of it yet. It strikes me as quite scattered — one of those books written by a bright guy with a ton of off-the-wall ideas, no editor, and perhaps not a great deal of writing experience. Even so, some of his ideas are intriguing.

Playing chess on the exterior surface of a cube, for instance. That’s today’s mind trip. Playing on the exterior surface is entirely different from 3-dimensional chess played in the interior of a cube, and seems like an excellent basis for a variant. Playing on the exterior surface is, in effect, equivalent to playing on three cylinders that interlock with one another. A 5x5x5 cube has 150 exterior squares, a large but not unreasonably large playing surface.

Murali seems not to have spent much time pondering the optimum piece density or movement vectors on such a playing surface. His bishops don’t use a proper diagonal when sliding over an edge to an adjacent face, but his pawns do. He suggests giving each player eight pieces and 16 pawns, but this is probably not enough, as less than 1/3 of the squares will be occupied at the start of the game (compared to 1/2 of the squares in conventional chess). The ratio of pieces to pawns is not very good either.

He gives no suggestions for a system of algebraic coordinates with which to notate piece positions, which makes it tricky even to talk about how the pieces might be set up. I’ve worked out a coordinate system, but it’s actually easier (for me, anyway) to visualize how the pieces move on the exterior of a cube than to discuss it using coordinates. For now, let’s just use generic terminology and diagrams rather than algebraic coordinates.

Read the rest of this entry »

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